Skip to content

Test Environment

Vitest provides environment option to run code inside a specific environment. You can modify how environment behaves with environmentOptions option.

By default, you can use these environments:

  • node is default environment
  • jsdom emulates browser environment by providing Browser API, uses jsdom package
  • happy-dom emulates browser environment by providing Browser API, and considered to be faster than jsdom, but lacks some API, uses happy-dom package
  • edge-runtime emulates Vercel's edge-runtime, uses @edge-runtime/vm package

Environments for Specific Files

When setting environment option in your config, it will apply to all the test files in your project. To have more fine-grained control, you can use control comments to specify environment for specific files. Control comments are comments that start with @vitest-environment and are followed by the environment name:

// @vitest-environment jsdom

import { expect, test } from 'vitest'

test('test', () => {
  expect(typeof window).not.toBe('undefined')

Or you can also set environmentMatchGlobs option specifying the environment based on the glob patterns.

Custom Environment

Starting from 0.23.0, you can create your own package to extend Vitest environment. To do so, create package with the name vitest-environment-${name} or specify a path to a valid JS/TS file (supported since 0.34.0). That package should export an object with the shape of Environment:

import type { Environment } from 'vitest'

export default <Environment>{
  name: 'custom',
  transformMode: 'ssr',
  // optional - only if you support "experimental-vm" pool
  async setupVM() {
    const vm = await import('node:vm')
    const context = vm.createContext()
    return {
      getVmContext() {
        return context
      teardown() {
        // called after all tests with this env have been run
  setup() {
    // custom setup
    return {
      teardown() {
        // called after all tests with this env have been run


Since 0.34.0 Vitest requires transformMode option on environment object. It should be equal to ssr or web. This value determines how plugins will transform source code. If it's set to ssr, plugin hooks will receive ssr: true when transforming or resolving files. Otherwise, ssr is set to false.

You also have access to default Vitest environments through vitest/environments entry:

import { builtinEnvironments, populateGlobal } from 'vitest/environments'

console.log(builtinEnvironments) // { jsdom, happy-dom, node, edge-runtime }

Vitest also provides populateGlobal utility function, which can be used to move properties from object into the global namespace:

interface PopulateOptions {
  // should non-class functions be bind to the global namespace
  bindFunctions?: boolean

interface PopulateResult {
  // a list of all keys that were copied, even if value doesn't exist on original object
  keys: Set<string>
  // a map of original object that might have been overridden with keys
  // you can return these values inside `teardown` function
  originals: Map<string | symbol, any>

export function populateGlobal(global: any, original: any, options: PopulateOptions): PopulateResult

Released under the MIT License.